Archive for the ‘Cancer’ Category

Breakthrough in genetic and cellular therapy in cancer

Friday, November 18th, 2011

There is a recent breakthrough in genetic and cell therapy that could lead to a dramatic difference in the management of cancers; A team from University of Pennsylvania have been able to genetically modify the T cells of patients with B cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with a “chimeric antigen receptor” CAR targeting a CD 19 molecule on CLL cells.

How the therapy works:

  • Autologous T cells are immune cells taken from a
    patient’s own blood stream. These cells are then modified to express an
    antibody on their surface that will recognize and bind to a protein called
    CD19. (the genetic engineering bit)
  • This CD19 protein is on most B-cell CLL cells
    and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cells.
  • These modified T cells are then grown (expanded)
    in the laboratory and given back to patients in an attempt to treat their
    leukemia. (the cell therapy bit)
  • When the patient’s own T-cells recognize and
    bind to the CLL cell, they have the ability to become activated and kill the
    leukemia cell. {{{0}}}

Initial Results

While only treated a small number of patients, the results were a breakthrough:

  • That a patient’s modified T-cells can survive
    for many months after administration, and have the ability to grow in the body
    in large quantities.
  • And they have been able to kill large quantities
    of CLL cells in all 3 patients treated.
  • Unfortunately, as CD19 antigen is expressed even
    in normal B lymphocyte cells, new clones of normal B cells that replace the B
    CLL cells are also killed and thus patients require immune support for the
    length of the observed successful treatment period, in one patient as long as
    one year. The investigators are now watching if the modified T cells will
    diminish and disappear over time since the work has been done. It is also not
    clear if the effect will last after that.

Another approach to modify the T cells is been explored in Israel at the lab of Vaxil Biotherapeutics where a breakthrough technology is applied to produce T cell therapeutic and preventive cancer vaccine.


The thrust of the technology is to identify good target cancer antigen and manipulate it with genetic engineering to reactivate the cell mediated immune response that have been obtunded by cancer cells.:Elicit the needed T-helper immune modulating response via the interaction of cancer antigen with MHC Class II surface antigen on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells that allows the complex interaction with CD4 T helper cells. The activation of these cells is

needed to provide the appropriate signals via cytokines to mobilise and activate the T cytotoxic cells. Foreign or invading antigens are processed after combining with ubiquitin in the cytoplasm by proteosome and would usually break the antigen to the TH via the endosomes and CTL epitopes via the endoplasmic reticulum to be combined with MHC Class II and Class I respectively.

  1. Elicit the T cytotoxic cells activation via expression of the canc er antigen with MHC Class I on the DC surface that allows recognition by T cytotoxic cells that will expand and activate leading to the lysis of target cells. The processing of the CTL epitopes in the endoplasmic
    reticulum is mediated by either Transport Associated Antigen Processing peptide
    (TAP) dependent or non TAP dependent channels. Many cancer cells are able to
    escape CTL immune response by modify the TAP channel.

The unique technology of Vaxil is in the antigen used as the cancer vaccine. The MU1 antigen that is expressed in more than 90% of solid and non-solid cancers. The first indication is in multiple myeloma. Trial started in September 2010 at the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem under the
direction of Dr Michael Shapira.

Unlike the CAR approach, the T cells are not genetically engineered to express anti CD19 on their surface. The unique genetically engineered cancer antigen enhances the T cell immune response by a better Antigen Presenting and processing technology that would reactivate the body’s  own immune response; The breakthrough is in obliterating the mechanism to obtund the natural T cell mediated immune response by the cancer cells through its unique antigen presenting and processing technology.

The unique characteristic of the target antigen

  • The target antigen is the basis for every vaccine and will dictate its efficacy more than the delivery system or the adjuvant.
  • The immune system (in particular T cells) recognize the target antigen via binding to a set of molecules called MHC class I and MHC class II. There are hundreds of different types and  every individual has a different set of between 6 and 12 individual MHC molecules.
  • For a therapeutic vaccine to work it must be able to find and bind these MHC molecules which vary widely amongst different people.

There are 2 approaches:

  • Approach 1: use the entire antigen/pathogen/cancer cell as statistically this should bind an individual’s set of MHC molecules. However, this significantly reduces the specificity of  the immune response which may lead to reduced efficacy and higher side-effects.
  • Approach 2: identify a small section of the target antigen that bind to a single MHC molecule. This leads to a specific but weak immune response, applicable only to a small proportion of the population.
  • Vaxil offers a third revolutionary combined approach – VaxHit – which identifies and uses the  Key sequence of the target antigen which has the following major advantages:
    • Small & defined sequences which generate a highly specific immune response with less likelihood of side-effects.
    • Binds a very large proportion of the potential combinations of an individual’s MHC molecules. Hence it is more potent and applicable for the majority of the population and will thus be more effective.

The VaxHit technology can identify potential vaccines for many indications (cancer and infectious diseases). VaxHit vaccines have the unique ability to overcome the tumor/pathogens ability to evade and resist the efforts of the immune system to eliminate them. This is called the TAP

VaxHit vaccines are potent without a dedicated delivery system or adjuvant and are non TAP dependent.



Acupuncture in Cancer Care

Thursday, July 7th, 2011

We are pleased have a guest writer Kate Flaherty in today’s blog. Kate is an outreach and awareness coordinator for the Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance in the US.  She is passionate about the role of complementary therapies during comprehensive cancer treatment as well as cancer prevention education.  Kate resides in Upstate New York.

The Benefits of Acupuncture in Cancer Care

Cancer is physically and emotionally taxing. Coping with the disease can be overwhelming. While there are numerous treatments for cancer, many are aggressive and produce an abundance of adverse side effects. Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that can provide relief without the unpleasant side effects. If you or someone you know has cancer, acupuncture may be beneficial.

Acupuncture is used in many hospital settings as therapy for people with mesothelioma and other cancers. It can be used in combination with chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation and surgery. Acupuncture works by causing physical reactions in the nerve cells and brain. This sets off a chain reaction by releasing hormones and brain chemicals like endorphins, which are the body’s natural painkillers.

The National Cancer Institute provides useful information about the success of this alternative therapy. Acupuncture plays a role in symptom management as well as preventative care. It can reduce pain and nausea, increase energy and enhance stamina. People with digestive problems due to cancer treatment can benefit as well. Acupuncture also reduces the hot flashes and fatigue associated with chemotherapy. {{{0}}}

Acupuncture can enhance the therapies that are already in use. Conventional treatments like chemotherapy and radiation can cause hair loss, anemia and skin burns. Acupuncture addresses these issues by encouraging the body to heal itself. The Cancer Treatment Centers of America often use acupuncture in conjunction with traditional treatments to attack cancer on all fronts.

In addition to treating the symptoms associated with cancer therapy, acupuncture can also accelerate a patient’s recovery. Various aspects of the procedure will increase white blood cells, which can greatly affect the person’s prognosis. Acupuncture boosts the immune system as well. This means a person receiving chemotherapy may be susceptible to fewer infections.

The procedures involved in acupuncture affect various parts of the body. Not only does this therapy reduce physical symptoms, it affects a person’s emotions. Patients can undergo acupuncture treatments to lower anxiety and relax the mind. This is especially beneficial prior to chemo or radiation appointments.

If you have been diagnosed with mesothelioma or another form of cancer, you may have concerns about what to expect in the future. An initial prognosis is not always accurate. There are many factors that can affect the outcome of any cancer. While the mesothelioma life expectancy varies from person to person, the choice of treatments can make a difference in how each person views his or her future.

The use of alternative treatments like acupuncture is continuously expanding. Acupuncture addresses cancer care with a full-body approach. Traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation can cause numerous complications. Acupuncture is a safe, effective adjunct for cancer treatment, and it can provide cancer patients with new options.


American Cancer Society

National Cancer Institute

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine


Please note that while we welcome contributions from individuals with a passion for patient care, the views of guest writers do not necessarily reflect the views of the editorial team and it is for the readers to validate the scientific evidence of the claims in peer-reviewed journals. We do not permit articles that are promoting any commercial products and services.

Understanding Vitamin D

Monday, March 7th, 2011

Dr John Cannell, the Executive Director of the non-profit organization, Vitamin D council provides a succinct article that is useful for those who do not understand the physiology of vitamin D.

Vitamin D Physiology


To understand the vitamin D endocrine system one needs to be familiar with the different forms of vitamin D, namely cholecalciferol, calcidiol, and calcitriol.


Cholecalciferol is the naturally occurring form of vitamin D. Cholecalciferol is made in large quantities in your skin when sunlight strikes your bare skin. It can also be taken as a supplement.


Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) is a prehormone in your blood that is directly made from cholecalciferol. When being tested for vitamin D deficiency, calcidiol is the only blood test that should be drawn. When someone refers to vitamin D blood levels, they are referring to calcidiol levels. Your doctor can order calcidiol levels but the lab will know calcidiol as 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

CALCITRIOL (1,25(OH)2D3 OR 1,25D3)

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is made from calcidiol in both the kidneys and in other tissues and is the most potent steroid hormonederived from cholecalciferol. Calcitriol has powerful anti-cancer properties. It is sometimes referred to as the active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol levels should never be used to determine if you are deficient in vitamin D.{{{*}}}


Cholecalciferol Forms In The Skin

Increase your blood vitamin D level the way nature intended, with ultraviolet B light! Cholecalciferol is formed in the skin when ultraviolet light of the correct wavelength,UVB, strikes bare skin. Enormous quantities of cholecalciferol are rapidly made in the skin if: the sun is high in the sky (midday and the summer season), your skin is not covered by clothes or sunblock, you stay in the sun until your skin just begins to turn pink (not red), you are not behind glass. Glass blocks virtually allUVB, preventing vitamin D from being made.

Studies show that if you go out in the summer sun in your bathing suit until your skin just begins to turn pink, you make between 10,000 and 50,000 units of cholecalciferol in your skin. Professor Michael Holick of Boston University School of Medicine has studied this extensively and believes a reasonable average of all the studies is 20,000 units. That means a few minutes in the summer sun produces 100 times more vitamin D than the government says you need! As discussed in other pages, this is the single most important fact about vitamin D.

The skin does another amazing thing with cholecalciferol. It preventsvitamin D toxicity. Once you make about 20,000 units, the same ultraviolet light that created cholecalciferol begins to degrade it. The more you make, the more destroyed. So a steady state is reached that prevents the skin from making too much cholecalciferol. This is why no one has ever been reported to develop vitamin D toxicity from the sun, though it is possible when taking vitamin D orally.

Animals Form Cholecalciferol In Their Fur

Fur bearing animals and many birds make cholecalciferol in their fur or feathers since sunlight can not get to their skin. Interestingly, mammals and birds then eat the cholecalciferol by licking their fur (grooming) or rubbing their beaks on their feathers (preening). So, when you take cholecalciferol by mouth, you are doing what a number of other mammals do!

Calcidiol Made in Liver

After it is made in the skin, or taken by mouth, cholecalciferol is transported to the liver where it is metabolized into calcidiol or 25(OH)D. Calcidiol is now thought by some scientists to have steroid hormone properties. It certainly helps maintain your blood calcium levels. But calcidiol’s main importance is that it is the storage form of vitamin D. Calcidiol is what fills your vitamin D gas tank. If your serum calcidiol level is less than 40 ng/mL, your tank is low and should be filled up, keeping it that way unless you have a rare medical condition called vitamin D hypersensitivity.

In order to understand why you should keep your vitamin D tank full, you need to understand the next step in the metabolism of cholecalciferol. After your liver turns cholecalciferol into calcidiol, calcidiol follows one of two pathways. The first pathway takes priority—as your life literally depends on it—but the second pathway is causing all the excitement. However, if your tank is low, most of your calcidiol takes the first pathway.

Calcitriol Made in Kidneys

The first pathway leads to the kidney, where calcidiol is turned into calcitriol. Calcitriol is a potent steroid hormone, in fact, it is the most potent steroid hormone in the human body. A steroid hormone is simply any molecule in the body that is made from cholesterol and that acts to turn your genes on and off. They are always important to health, always need to be handled with care, and are often quite potent.

Calcitriol made by the kidney circulates in the blood to maintain your blood calcium levels. Calcium is vital to the function of the cells in the body, without enough calcitriol in the blood calcium levels will fall and illness will set in. Therefore, the first priority for calcidiol is to go to the kidney where it makes enough calcitriol to secrete into the blood in order to regulate serum calcium.

More Calcitriol Produced in Tissues

The second vitamin D pathway leads to your tissues and that is where all the action is. All of the amazing health benefits of vitamin D discovered in the last 10 years are from vitamin D going down the second pathway. If any calcidiol is left over—that is, if your tank is full and your kidneys are getting all the calcidiol they need to maintain serum calcium—then calcidiol is able to take another pathway, one that leads directly to the cells. This path is only now being fully understood and is causing excitement all around the world, especially concerning cancer. These are the autocrine (inside cell) and paracrine (around the cell) functions of the vitamin D system.

These functions are crucial to understanding why you should keep your vitamin D tank full. If you only have a small amount of calcidiol in your blood, virtually all of it goes to your kidney, which then makes extra calcitriol to keep your serum calcium levels from falling. Almost no calcidiol gets to your tissues to make tissue calcitriol.

Tissue Calcitriol A Cancer Fighter

But when your tank is full, the left over calcidiol goes to the many cells in the body that are able to make their own calcitriol to fight cancer—and they do so with gusto! In fact, they appear to make as much calcitriol as they can. The more calcidiol they get, the more calcitriol they make. The step is not rate-limited by its product (calcitriol) and is thus uncontrolled. No other steroid hormone system in the body works this way; the manufacture of calcitriol in the tissues is unique. This is the second most important fact about vitamin D.

Other steroids limit their own production by inhibiting the very chemical reactions that make them. For example, a chemical reaction in the body turns cholesterol into progesterone, a female hormone. When enough progesterone is made, progesterone shuts down (inhibits) the chemical reaction so no more progesterone is made. This is called negative feedback. This occurs with all other steroids, somewhere in the metabolic process. If it didn’t, the body would not be able to precisely regulate steroid hormone levels.

It does not appear to occur with calcitriol in the tissues! Throughout the entire range of normal calcidiol levels, tissue calcitriol levels continue to increase.

This is a crucial piece of information, because it has such profound implications for the normal state of human affairs. Just as modern humans have been living (and dying) with historically low levels of calcidiol in their blood, their tissues have been living (and dying) with historically low levels of calcitriol. And calcitriol is the most potent steroid hormone in the human body. It turns genes on and off at a dizzying rate, genes that are either making proteins that are essential to fighting cancer or genes that are making proteins that are promoting diseases like cancer.

Built-in Toxicity Protection

What prevents tissue calcitriol levels from getting too high? Something has to or your tissues would make too much. One thing that helps is called catabolism, or breakdown. The more calcitriol made, the more metabolized and excreted in the bile. But that does not prevent too much from being made in the first place.

Let us go backwards for a minute. One possibe way of limiting calcitriol in the tissues is by limiting the amount of calcidiol in the blood. That is, maybe the chemical reaction that turns cholecalciferol into calcidiol in the liver is rate-limited, or has a negative feedback loop?

No, it does not. In normal humans, the more cholecalciferol in the blood, the more calcidiol the liver makes. So, in the natural state, what limits the amount of cholecalciferol in the blood? What is the rate-limiting step for the production of calcitriol in the tissues?

Your skin! How much you go into the sun. Remember, the body has a fool-proof method of limiting cholecalciferol. Only about 20,000 units can be made in the skin every day because the same sunlight that makes it, begins to break it down. After your skin turns dark (tans) even less cholecalciferol is made, maybe 10,000 units. Humans have a natural system in the skin that prevents toxicity. Another way of saying this is that the rate-limiting step for the production of calcitriol in the tissues is your behavior: how often you go into the sun or how much cholecalciferol you take as a supplement. This makes vitamin D unique.


Remember, our ancestors lived naked in the sun for several million years. Then 50,000 years ago, some of us migrated north and south to places with less sun. Then we put on clothes, started working inside and living in cities where buildings blocked the sun. Then we started traveling in cars instead of walking, or riding horses, and glass blocked even more of the UVB in the sunlight. Then, only a few years ago, we started actively avoiding the sun and putting on sunblock. All this time we humans have been steadily reducing the tissue levels of the most potent steroid hormone in our bodies, one with powerful anti-cancer properties.

The really significant reductions in sunlight exposure have occurred since the industrial revolution, just the time the “diseases of civilization” like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer seem to have greatly increased. Pretty frightening when you think about it.


Vitamin D and Cancer

Monday, March 7th, 2011

On 22 Feb 2011, the University of California released a press statement on the results of a study conducted jointly between UCSD and Creighton University School of Medicine in Omaha.

Higher vitamin D intake needed to reduce cancer risk

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Creighton University School of Medicine in Omaha have reported that markedly higher intake of vitamin D is needed to reach blood levels that can prevent or markedly cut the incidence of breast cancer and several other major diseases than had been originally thought. The findings are published February 21 in the journal Anticancer Research

While these levels are higher than traditional intakes, they are largely in a range deemed safe for daily use in a December 2010 report from the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine.

“We found that daily intakes of vitamin D by adults in the range of 4000-8000 IU are needed to maintain blood levels of vitamin D metabolites in the range needed to reduce by about half the risk of several diseases – breast cancer, colon cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes,” said Cedric Garland, DrPH, professor of family and preventive medicine at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center. “I was surprised to find that the intakes required to maintain vitamin D status for disease prevention were so high – much higher than the minimal intake of vitamin D of 400 IU/day that was needed to defeat rickets in the 20th century.”{{{*}}}

“I was not surprised by this” said Robert P. Heaney, MD, of Creighton University, a distinguished biomedical scientist who has studied vitamin D need for several decades. “This result was what our dose-response studies predicted, but it took a study such as this, of people leading their everyday lives, to confirm it.”

The study reports on a survey of several thousand volunteers who were taking vitamin D supplements in the dosage range from 1000 to 10,000 IU/day. Blood studies were conducted to determine the level of 25-vitamin D – the form in which almost all vitamin D circulates in the blood.

“Most scientists who are actively working with vitamin D now believe that 40 to 60 ng/ml is the appropriate target concentration of 25-vitamin D in the blood for preventing the major vitamin D-deficiency related diseases, and have joined in a letter on this topic,” said Garland. “Unfortunately, according a recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, only 10 percent of the US population has levels in this range, mainly people who work outdoors.”

Interest in larger doses was spurred in December of last year, when a National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine committee identified 4000 IU/day of vitamin D as safe for every day use by adults and children nine years and older, with intakes in the range of 1000-3000 IU/day for infants and children through age eight years old.

While the IOM committee states that 4000 IU/day is a safe dosage, the recommended minimum daily intake is only 600 IU/day.

“Now that the results of this study are in, it will become common for almost every adult to take 4000 IU/day,” Garland said. “This is comfortably under the 10,000 IU/day that the IOM Committee Report considers as the lower limit of risk, and the benefits are substantial.” He added that people who may have contraindications should discuss their vitamin D needs with their family doctor.

“Now is the time for virtually everyone to take more vitamin D to help prevent some major types of cancer, several other serious illnesses, and fractures,” said Heaney.

Other co-authors of the article were Leo Baggerly, PhD, and Christine French.

More facts are available from Anticancer Research:; and the National Academy of Sciences – Institute of

Cancer – a nutritional disease?

Sunday, March 6th, 2011

There is an emerging school of thought that is supported by evidence in research that cancer could be a nutritional disease. Cancer cells are known to plump for aerobic glycolysis and substrate phosphorylation energy system when mitochondria, the power generator of cellular energy are impaired from exotoxins or endotoxins. Normal cells use oxidative phosphorylation as their main energy system. Mitochondrial DNA that code for the enzymes needed for efficient oxidative phosphorylation is vulnerable to oxidative stress damage from reactive oxygen species that are produced in the routine production of cellular energy in the mitochondria. These ROS are responsible for mitochondria destruction if they are not mopped up by antioxidants.{{{*}}}

Warburg described the aerobic glycolysis energy system of the cancer cells. Cancer appears to be a form of intracellular lactic acidosis caused by a block in the oxidation of glucose at the level of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase). The glycolysis metabolism of glucose increases cancer cells’ lactic acid and reduces the intracellular pH resulting major shifts in the intracellular biochemistry. Aerobic glycolysis, known as the “Warburg Effect”, inactivates mitochondrial respiration which allows cancer cell growth.

Impairment of mitochondria leads to genomic instability and through a phenomenon known as retrograde response causes the cells to up-regulated oncogenes such as AKT and Myc that transactivate glycolytic enzymes and RAS that promotes HIF1 (hypoxic inducible factors) that stimulates PDH kinase which inhibits PDH that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA driving the Kreb Cycle in the oxidative phosphorylation process. Loss of p53 the “policeman gene” that regulates cell death of cells with damaged DNA is common in cancer cells. P53 is also responsible for the coding of cytochrome complexes that are responsible for the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Deletion or mutation of p53 leads to dysfunction of the cytochrome complexes. The release of cytochrome C is also involved in the initiation of apoptosis. Hence, mitochrondrial dysfunctions could contribute to carcinogenesis in a number of ways.

Targets for enzymes that drive aerobic glycolysis have been studied as a possible anticancer strategy. One such candidate is dichloroacetate that promotes oxidative phosphorylation and turn off aerobic glycolysis. As a medicinal, DCA is generally well tolerated from dosages between 10mg/Kg and 50mg/Kg, although prolonged exposure is associated with peripheral neuropathy. Its activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme (PDH) of the mitochondria decreases glycolysis and reactivates glucose oxidation, a favorable approach to ameliorate lactic acidosis.

Cancer cells predominantly utilize a system of glycolysis for energy instead of the glucose oxidation used by healthy cells.  DCA reverses this glycolysis causing several major detrimental changes in the cancer tumor cells.

The mechanism of actions of DCA is as follows:

  1. First and foremost DCA inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenasekinase (PDK). PDK blocks pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) through its phosphorylation activity. When this kinase is inhibited by DCA, the PDH is reactivated causing the mitochondria to no longer be hyperpolarized, instead the membrane and the mitochondria are depolarized, reactivating the mitochondrial K+ channels which then decreases cytosolic K+. When PDH is inhibited in cancer cells by PDK, an excess cytosolic K+ occurs that inactivates the caspases 3 and 9, important factors in apoptosis. DCA reactivates these caspases along with an increase in H2O2 intracellularly, allowing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria.
  2. The release of cytochrome c is a major activating step for cell apoptosis as it triggers the caspase cascade. The results of DCA on cancers are seen both in vitro and in vivo. These effects are not seen in normal cells.
  3. Dichloroacetate’s other major effect on cancer cells is the release of mitochondrial calcium (Ca++). The increase of Ca++ in cancer cells is associated with the increase and proliferation of transcription factors. Calcium also activates ornithine decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis, and the antiapoptosis factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T lymphocytes). When the calcium decreases with the introduction of DCA, the cell is further directed toward apoptosis and a decrease in cell replication. In addition to DCA causing a major shift in the mitochondria, cytoplasm, and cellular membrane, the end effect of DCA is a cell cycle arrest in the Gap 1 phase (G1), which also increases apoptosis.

The medical community is seeing more and more patients who are seeking forms of therapy on their own with varying results; some are deleterious and endangering while others may prolong their lives but should still be done under medical supervision. Understandably physicians frequently cannot ethically advise or administer the use of the patents’ preferences, leaving the patient to their own devices. Controlled research needs to be conducted for validation and confirmation of DCA’s efficacy and maintenance levels in the spectrum of cancer therapies.

The Journal of Oncology July 2010 reported a Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patient taking 10 mg/kg [750 mg] of dichloroacetate daily of his own accord, had a complete remission of his Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cancer after four months that has continued to date by his maintaining his DCA dosage in addition to taking 750 mg thiamine to protect against the slight tingling and numbness in the nerves of the fingers and toes, without compromising his quality of life or affecting the treatment’s efficacy. Ignoring medical advice not to self-medicate he has continued his DCA/thiamine regimen, stating his concern that discontinuing DCA may allow a recurrence of the disease.


  1. Retrieved from on March 6, 2011 Cancer Res 2006; 66: (18).
    Jung-whan Kim and Chi V. Dang; Cancer’s Molecular Sweet Tooth and the Warburg Effect September 15, 2006 8928 DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1501
  2. Dana F. Flavin, Case Report Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Reversal with Dichloroacetate; Journal of Oncology Volume 2010, Article ID 414726, 4 pages doi:10.1155/2010/414726